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In classical music, orchestration (choosing the instruments of a large music ensemble such as an orchestra which will play the different parts of music, such as the melody, accompaniment, countermelody, bassline and so on) is typically done by the composer, but in musical theatre and in pop music, songwriters may hire an arranger to do the orchestration.
In some cases, a pop or traditional songwriter may not use written notation at all, and instead compose the song in their mind and then play, sing and/or record it from memory.
Lead instrument players in rock and traditional music are expected to be able to improvise a solo (e.g., the guitar solo, which is a key section of rock, metal and blues songs).
Piece is a "general, non-technical term [that began to be] applied mainly to instrumental compositions from the 17th century onwards....other than when they are taken individually 'piece' and its equivalents are rarely used of movements in sonatas or symphonies....composers have used all these terms [in their different languages] frequently in compound forms [e.g. In vocal music..term is most frequently used for operatic ensembles..." draw parallels from visual art's formal elements.
Examples range from 20th century avant-garde music that uses graphic notation, to text compositions such as Karlheinz Stockhausen's Aus den sieben Tagen, to computer programs that select sounds for musical pieces.
Music that makes heavy use of randomness and chance is called aleatoric music, and is associated with contemporary composers active in the 20th century, such as John Cage, Morton Feldman, and Witold Lutosławski.
Electric and electronic instruments are used in contemporary classical music compositions and concerts, albeit to a lesser degree than in popular music.
In jazz and popular music, notable sound recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written or printed scores play in classical music.
Although a musical composition often uses musical notation and has a single author, this is not always the case.
Different musical styles permit singers or performers to use various amounts of musical improvisation during the performance of a composed song or piece.
In free jazz, the performers may play without any sheet music, form or plan.
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As well, chord-playing instrumentalists, such as harpsichord players or pipe organists were expected to be able to improvise chords from a figured bass part, which used numbers and markings made near the written-out bassline to indicate which harmonies should be played.