Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and

Model studies have suggested that the direct transduction occurs via pore formation, carpet-like perturbations, or inverted micelles formed in the bilayer membrane. Some primary amphiphatic CPPs such as TP10 are toxic to cells even at low concentrations.In addition, amphiphatic CPPs interact with both natural and anionic lipid membranes [17].A group of short peptides have been discovered that serve as delivery vectors for large molecules.They may have been called by different names such as protein translocation domain, membrane translocating sequence, Trojan peptide, or most commonly, cell-penetrating peptide (CPP).They can deliver large-cargo molecules, such as oligonucleotides, into cells.Endocytosis and direct penetration have been suggested as the two major uptake mechanisms, a subject still under debate.

One of the classifications is based on the origin of the peptide.They typically bind to model membranes with a certain fraction of anionic lipids [17].The third class, that is, the nonamphipathic peptides (na CPPs) are rather short with a high content of cationic amino acids (arginine) such as R9 [11] and TAT(48–60) [3, 4].Synthetic peptides are another group in this category such as the polyarginine family [2, 16].CPPs can also be divided into three other classes based upon different peptide sequences and binding properties to the lipids.

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